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Neural Progenitor Cells

Models of Toxicology for the 21st Century

7/28/2016

Abstract: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are an attractive in vitro model to study neurological development, neurotoxicity, and diseases of the nervous system. However, there is a lack of validated NPC lines and media that support differentiation into multiple types of neurons for disease modeling as well as drug and toxicity screening. This webinar will explore the expression of genes associated with the differentiation of NPCs during three weeks in dopaminergic differentiation media. We will then validate that ATCC NPCs and dopaminergic differentiation media are suitable for drug screening in neurotoxicity screenings in NPC-derived neurons by using a viability assay and high-content imaging analysis.

Key Points:

  • ATCC NPCs cultured in ATCC Dopaminergic Neuron Differentiation Media express a range of specialized neural markers
  • NPCs are sensitive to several compounds known for their cytotoxic effects
  • The complete NPC culture system provides a validated model to investigate the neurotoxicity of a variety of chemotherapeutics

Discovering ATCC Primary Immune Cells

Model Systems to Study the Immune and Cardiovascular Systems

7/14/2016

Abstract: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are capable of differentiating into the formed elements of blood: leukocytes, erythrocytes, and thrombocytes. While these distinct cell types display specific immune, transport, and hemostatic phenotypic functions, they are all derived from HSCs. In this webinar we will present data showing that ATCC marrow- and blood-derived primary immune cells, such as bone marrow and cord blood CD34+ cells as well as peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes can be induced to differentiate into various hematopoietic lineages. This webinar will also highlight the use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to investigate the immunosuppressive capabilities of primary and hTERT-immortalized mesenchymal stem cells in a T-cell proliferation assay.

Key Points:

  • HSCs are a rapidly advancing area of research producing insights into cellular plasticity, immune function, and disease.
  • Cryopreserved, purified blood cells can be cultured in vitro and induced to differentiate into downstream lineages or used for functional assays.
  • ATCC offers a variety of blood cell type from multiple tissues that are useful in many applications and research areas.

Functionally Characterized Human PBMCs

An Improved In Vitro Model of Human Immune Response

6/30/2016

Abstract: Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) contain many of the functional cell types of immune system, and are an ideal model to study the human immune response in vitro. Currently, PBMCs are being used in basic and clinical research areas including basic immunology and cell biology, infectious diseases, vaccine development, tumor immunology, and drug discovery. PBMC are also widely used for monitoring disease progression, designing personalized approaches to treatment, and predicting the occurrence of treatment-associated adverse events. The majority of PBMC applications rely on highly complex cell-based assays; however, phenotypic and functional variability of human PBMCs makes the development and validation of these assays difficult. Additionally, variations in cell collection and cryopreservation protocols can further affect PBMC properties. In this presentation, we demonstrate that pre-screening characterization of lot-specific functional activity of PBMCs is extremely useful for selecting cells to address individual experimental goals.

Key Points:

  • PBMCs play a critical role in modern biomedical research; however, the functional activity of these cells is highly variable
  • Many factors affecting PBMC variability, including genetic diversity and environmental pressure, are outside of researchers’ control
  • Conducting pre-screening and establishing PBMC functional activity profiles offers an attractive solution to address PBMC variability

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

A Growing Superbug Population

5/5/2016

Abstract: The discovery of antibiotics in the early twentieth century has revolutionized the treatment of infectious diseases, saving millions of lives and easing the suffering of many. However, as the structure and function of antibiotics have evolved through the efforts of biotech and pharma companies, prokaryotic species are evolving in parallel, fashioning novel and effective methods to avoid therapeutic killing. In the last several decades, this concern has become more pronounced with the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms in both community- and hospital-acquired infections, resulting in increased morbidity, mortality, and health-care expense. In this presentation, we will discuss the emergence of multidrug-resistant infections with a particular emphasis on the emergence and global spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteraeae strains.

Key Points:

  • Multidrug-resistant strains are an emerging problem throughout the world
  • ATCC acquires, authenticates, and distributes clinically relevant multidrug-resistant strains that are essential to the scientific community
  • KPC, NDM, and OXA strains are now available at ATCC

The ATCC Story

A Ninety Year Celebration

4/28/2016

Abstract: ATCC celebrated its 90th anniversary in 2015 and in recognition of that milestone this presentation tells the remarkable story of ATCC’s evolution as an organization and its contribution to developments in life sciences for nearly a century. Established in 1925 as the American Type Culture Collection by scientists for scientists, it has become an international resource for life science research and development. Dependent on financial subsidies for more than 75 years, ATCC has since achieved independence as a fully self-sustaining non-profit organization. ATCC is now investing in research and development, and in 2012 was able to establish and fully fund the Global Biological Standards Institute (GBSI).This is the story of that amazing transformation and the role of ATCC in the evolution of the life sciences.

Key Points:

  • ATCC was founded by scientists for scientists; it is a science-based organization
  • ATCC is now fully self-sustainable after dependence on government subsidies and private financial support for more than 75 years
  • ATCC contributes to global science and health initiatives by providing biological resources and related services

Abstract: Cryopreservation is the use of very low temperatures to structurally preserve intact living cells and tissues. Normally, the freezing of water in cells causes catastrophic damage to cellular structure by physical damage of ice formation and increased imbalance of solutes. Cryopreserving cells with the proper cryoprotectants and techniques will maximize viability of cells for cell culture. This webinar presentation will discuss best practices for cryopreservation focusing on determining optimal freezing rates and cryoprotectants, selecting proper containment units, managing a biorepository, and handling cells post-thaw. Emphasis will be placed on reviewing time-proven techniques while introducing newer innovative approaches to maximize reliability in cryopreservation for modern day cell culture.

Key Points:

  • For the most accurate administration of DMSO, use Serum Free Cell Freezing Media already formulated with exactly 10% DMSO
  • A controlled cooling rate (1 – 3°C /min) is necessary to maximize cell viability when freezing down cell lines
  • The CoolCell® is a reliable and consistent cryo-container

A Tale of 3 Mummies

A Microbiome Analysis of Life in the Peruvian Andes 1,000 Years Ago

4/14/2016

Abstract: The natural mummification process is a rare and unique process resulting from low temperatures and oxygen levels, and dry weather conditions. In the present study, we characterized the gut microbiome of three pre-Columbian Andean mummies using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics to understand the preservation and evolution of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, antimicrobial resistance genes, diet, and the metabolic processes during the natural mummification of the human gut.

Key Points:

  • 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics can be used to understand changes to the human microbiome
  • Evaluation of microbial populations from mummified remains can provide valuable insight into the medical and cultural aspects of ancient people
  • Ancient DNA must be suitable for investigation and should be evaluated through damage analysis studies
  • Quality control of the metagenome analysis process is key to ALL studies. It is particularly important in ancient DNA studies to ensure that the results are reflective of the actual sample, not an artifact of DNA extraction, PCR, sequencing, and/or analysis

Solving Identity Crisis in Animal Cells

Best Practices with DNA Barcodes and STR Analysis

3/31/2016

Abstract: Animal cell lines are important in vitro systems and tools for scientists in diverse disciplines such as basic cell biology, genetic mapping, gene expression, and gene therapy. Animal cell line identity, which is a crucial first step in cell line authentication, is frequently underappreciated and ignored by most research scientists. Over the years numerous cell lines have been shown to be misidentified due, in part, to poor techniques and inadequate authentication protocols. It is estimated that the financial loss incurred by misidentified cell lines is in the millions of dollars. Animal cell line identity now requires a comprehensive strategy that employs several complementary technologies. Technological advances have given rise to improved capabilities. An overview of these technologies to include STR analysis for human cell line identity and CO1 for animal cell line identity will be presented.

Key Points:

  • Cell line authentication is critical to meet funding, quality control, and publication requirements
  • Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling is an accepted form of authentication that differentiates human cell lines
  • DNA barcoding complements STR profiling by providing species-specific identification

Neural Progenitor Cells

Potent Models of Normal and Disease Neurobiology

11/19/2015

In vitro neurological research presents many challenges due to the difficulty in establishing high-yield neuronal cultures as well as batch-to-batch consistency. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have a high expansion capacity and can differentiate into neurological cells types; thus, these cells hold great promise for both regenerative medicine and drug discovery. This webinar will discuss neural differentiation and touch on its roles in investigating neurodegenerative diseases and screening therapeutics. Methods for generating large quantities of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from human fibroblast-, CD34+-, and Parkinson’s disease-derived iPSCs will then be highlighted. Finally, the generation and function of NPC reporter cell lines, created using zinc finger nuclease gene editing technology, will be examined.

We often speak of the global technical community in the abstract, but accreditation to ISO 17025 makes each accredited laboratory feel part of the practical everyday operation of that community. With our ever-growing science and technologies, manufactured and agricultural materials, telecommunications, internet, cyber-security, weapons, explosives, drugs, medicines, and our homeland security operations and interdiction testing, we need to have confidence that materials are sampled well, tested appropriately, and that their measurement tools are well calibrated. The oversight and coordination of all calibration and testing is standardized and managed as best as possible through ISO, through ILAC, and in the everyday, through labs accredited to ISO 17025.